Essential Guide: HMO Fire Doors

Safeguarding Lives and Property with Effective HMO Fire Door Practices

Ensuring compliance with HMO licensing requirements across all UK boroughs is a critical aspect of maintaining safety in Houses in Multiple Occupation (HMOs). This article will delve into the pivotal role of fire doors in HMOs, exploring the specific regulatory demands, and what they mean for HMO property owners and managers.

Importance of Fire Doors in HMOs

Fire doors are a fundamental component in the safety infrastructure of Houses in Multiple Occupation (HMOs). These properties, typically rented out to three or more individuals who are not part of a single ‘household’ but share common facilities such as bathrooms and kitchens, require stringent safety measures to protect occupants from fire hazards. The significance of fire doors in this context cannot be overstated. They are not just doors; they are engineered safety devices designed to fulfil multiple roles in fire protection and prevention.

In HMOs, where multiple occupants live independently, the risk of fire can be elevated due to various cooking activities, electrical appliances, and heating equipment used in close quarters. Fire doors help in creating compartmentalization within the building. This means that in the event of a fire, these doors can effectively contain the fire and smoke to a specific area for a designated period, usually up to 30 minutes or more depending on their rating. This containment is crucial for two main reasons: firstly, it provides occupants with valuable time to evacuate safely, and secondly, it limits the spread of fire, which can be instrumental in reducing damage and potentially saving lives.

Moreover, in a building with multiple residents who might be unfamiliar with each other’s routines and living habits, fire doors serve as a passive fire protection system that operates continuously without the need for human intervention. They are always ‘on duty,’ offering a layer of protection that is especially important in a living situation with inherently higher risks.

Regulatory Requirements

The regulatory landscape for fire doors in Houses in Multiple Occupation (HMOs) is shaped by a complex array of legislation and guidelines. These regulations are not uniform across the UK and can vary by location, making it essential for HMO owners and managers to be aware of both national and local requirements.

The Housing Act 2004
This act is a cornerstone in the regulation of HMOs throughout the UK. It mandates that HMOs adhere to specific fire safety standards, which critically include the installation and maintenance of appropriate fire doors. The Act’s provisions are designed to ensure that dwellings with multiple, non-related occupants have adequate measures in place to protect against the risk of fire. This includes not just the presence of fire doors, but also their quality, functionality, and suitability for the specific layout and risks associated with each individual HMO.

Local Council Regulations
The role of local councils in fire safety regulation is pivotal. Councils have the authority to set additional or more specific requirements for fire safety in HMOs, tailored to the needs of their jurisdictions. This can include stipulations on the type, placement, and number of fire doors. For instance, a council might require fire doors in certain areas of an HMO that are deemed to be at higher risk of fire. These local regulations work alongside national laws to create a comprehensive safety net, addressing unique local conditions and building types.

Fire Safety Order 2005
In England and Wales, the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 applies to all non-domestic premises, including HMOs. This order places a responsibility on the ‘responsible person’ – usually the landlord or property manager in the case of an HMO – to carry out a detailed fire risk assessment and implement appropriate fire safety measures. This includes ensuring the proper installation and maintenance of fire doors. The Order emphasizes a proactive approach to fire safety, requiring regular reviews and updates to fire risk assessments and safety measures.

Fire Door Standards
The specifics of fire door standards are crucial. Fire doors in HMOs are typically required to be FD30 rated, meaning they are designed to resist fire for at least 30 minutes. This rating is a minimum standard, and in some cases, higher ratings (like FD60, which offers 60 minutes of protection) may be required depending on the building’s size, layout, and risk assessment. These standards ensure that in the event of a fire, there is sufficient time for occupants to safely evacuate the building. It’s also essential that these doors are fitted correctly and maintained regularly to ensure they function as intended in an emergency.

Fire Door Standards for HMOs

When addressing fire door installations in Houses in Multiple Occupation (HMOs), understanding the diverse and sometimes varied requirements set by different councils across the UK is crucial. These requirements can range from the need for intumescent strips, which expand under heat to seal gaps and hinder the spread of fire and smoke, to specific types of door closers. While some councils strictly require the installation of intumescent strips on fire doors, others may focus more on the types of door closers used or other safety features.

In response to these varying requirements, and to ensure the highest standards of safety and compliance in all our HMOs, we have developed a comprehensive approach for our services to landlords in installing fire doors for HMOs. This approach is inclusive and exhaustive, encompassing a range of features to meet and exceed the diverse standards of different councils:

FD30 Fire Doors: Our doors are rigorously tested to BS 476: Part 22: 1987, achieving a fire resistance of 30 minutes. Each door is meticulously crafted to align with the stringent safety standards required in HMO environments.

Intumescent Strips & Smoke Seals: To enhance fire and smoke protection, every door we install is equipped with compliant intumescent strips and smoke seals that meet BS 476-22 standards. These features are essential in creating a barrier against fire and smoke infiltration.

Fire-Rated Hinges: We ensure the installation of three 1-hour fire-rated ball bearing hinges on each door, adhering to BS EN 1935:2002 standards. These hinges play a crucial role in maintaining the door’s integrity during a fire.

Self-Closing Mechanisms: Our doors are fitted with self-closing mechanisms certified under Certifire: CF600 with a CE mark. This feature is vital in automatically closing the door to prevent the spread of fire and smoke.

Exit Features: Prioritizing safety, bedroom doors are fitted with thumb-turn locks to ensure quick, keyless exits. This is an essential aspect for facilitating fast emergency evacuations.

Door Stops: Our installations include Redwood door stops that offer 30-minute fire resistance. These door stops are an integral component in enhancing the overall fire safety efficacy of the door installation.

Expert Fitting & Inspections

When it comes to the installation of fire doors in Houses in Multiple Occupation (HMOs), the emphasis must be on ensuring that the right professionals are hired for the job. Fire door installation in HMOs involves specific standards and requirements that differ significantly from those in standard residential or commercial premises. Therefore, selecting fitters who specialize in HMO fire doors is crucial. These professionals are not only familiar with the unique regulations and safety standards of HMOs but also bring a level of expertise and precision that is essential for this type of installation. Their knowledge ensures that all components of the fire door, from the door itself to the hardware, are compliant with the latest safety regulations.

After the installation, it’s vital to perform thorough checks to ensure everything is correctly in place and functioning as intended. One of the key things to look for is the gap between the door and the frame, which should be consistently around 3mm. This gap is essential for the proper operation of the door, especially under the intense heat of a fire, where the door needs to expand without becoming stuck. Additionally, checking that the door closes automatically is crucial. This feature is a fundamental aspect of fire safety, as it ensures the door will close on its own in the event of a fire, helping to contain the spread of fire and smoke.

Furthermore, all door furniture, including handles, locks, and hinges, should be fire-rated and compliant with the relevant safety standards. These components are critical in ensuring the door’s integrity during a fire and contribute to the overall effectiveness of the fire door in providing protection. Regular maintenance checks, including ensuring that all components remain in good working order, are essential for maintaining the fire door’s functionality over time. Such diligence in both the selection of fitters and the subsequent inspections and maintenance is key to ensuring the safety of residents in HMOs.

Compliance and Enforcement

Compliance with fire door regulations in Houses in Multiple Occupation (HMOs) is not just a matter of adhering to safety standards; it also involves legal obligations that are enforced by local authorities and fire services. These entities play a crucial role in ensuring that HMOs meet the required fire safety standards, including those specifically pertaining to fire doors.

Local authorities have the responsibility to conduct regular inspections of HMOs to verify compliance with fire safety regulations. These inspections can be comprehensive, covering various aspects of fire safety such as the proper installation and maintenance of fire doors, the presence and functionality of intumescent strips and smoke seals, the appropriate fitting of fire-rated door furniture, and the overall integrity of fire safety measures in the property.

In cases where non-compliance is found, the consequences can be significant. Penalties for failing to meet fire door regulations can range from fines to more severe legal actions, including prosecution. These penalties underscore the importance of compliance, not only to avoid legal repercussions but also to ensure the safety and wellbeing of HMO occupants.

Moreover, the enforcement of these regulations is not limited to periodic inspections by local authorities. Fire services may also conduct their own inspections, especially if there have been previous incidents or concerns raised about a particular property. These inspections are vital in identifying any potential risks or non-compliance issues that could jeopardize the safety of residents in the event of a fire.

For HMO owners and managers, staying compliant with fire door regulations involves a continuous commitment to safety. It requires regular maintenance of fire doors, staying informed about the latest fire safety standards, and promptly addressing any issues identified during inspections. The goal of these regulations and the subsequent enforcement by local authorities and fire services is to ensure a high standard of fire safety in HMOs, ultimately protecting lives and property.


In conclusion, the implementation of rigorous fire door regulations in Houses in Multiple Occupation (HMOs) is a vital aspect of safeguarding the lives and property of those residing in these shared spaces. The complexity and diversity of these regulations, shaped by a blend of national and local standards, highlight the need for meticulous attention to detail in every aspect of fire door installation and maintenance. From selecting the right door with appropriate fire ratings to ensuring the installation of intumescent strips, smoke seals, and fire-rated door furniture, every step is crucial in building a robust fire safety framework within HMOs.

HMO landlords and HMO managers feel free to contact us, if you are in London and need HMO fire doors installed.

Carl Evans

Written By Carl Evans

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