Convert Your House to an HMO

A Guide For Investors

The demand for affordable housing has surged, especially within bustling urban environments. With cities expanding and the cost of living skyrocketing, many individuals are looking for cost-effective housing solutions. As a response to this growing need, savvy property investors are turning their attention towards Houses in Multiple Occupation (HMOs).

By converting a single dwelling into an HMO, landlords stand to significantly boost their rental income. Instead of receiving rent from just one family or individual, a property can be reconfigured to accommodate multiple tenants. For example, what was once a three-bedroom family home can be transformed to house five or more individuals, each paying a separate rent. This multi-tenancy approach can drastically increase the property’s monthly yield, often making the initial conversion costs worthwhile in the long run.

Moreover, the recent introduction of Section 24 has piqued the interest of landlords in HMOs even further. Section 24 restricts the amount of mortgage interest that can be deducted from a landlord’s rental income, making traditional single tenancies less profitable for some. HMOs, with their enhanced earning potential, have become an enticing alternative. By multiplying the number of rent-paying tenants within a single property, landlords can offset the financial constraints brought about by such tax changes.

However, while the financial benefits are undeniable, it’s crucial to understand the intricacies of HMO conversions to ensure a profitable and seamless transition to getting a HMO Licence. For budding landlords or investors, knowledge and preparation are paramount.

1. Understand the Basics

A House in Multiple Occupation (HMO) is not just any ordinary property. At its core, an HMO is specifically designed to house multiple tenants, usually three or more, who are not from a single household or family unit. Here’s a deeper dive into its nuances:

Definition: An HMO refers to a property where three or more unrelated people cohabit, often due to professional, academic, or financial reasons.

Shared Facilities: One of the defining characteristics of HMOs is the shared amenities. This typically includes bathrooms, kitchens, and communal living areas. Unlike traditional apartment units or flats where each unit is self-contained, HMO tenants often share these facilities, fostering a communal living environment.

Variability in Size and Complexity: While the basic definition requires a minimum of three unrelated occupants, HMOs can vary significantly in size. Some may house just three tenants, while larger properties, especially in student areas or big cities, can accommodate ten or more.

Benefits for Tenants: For many tenants, especially students or young professionals moving to vibrant cities like London, HMOs are not only a pocket-friendly option but also a socially enriching one. Being surrounded by peers, often in similar life stages or professions, fosters a sense of community and offers a ready-made social circle in a new city. This is particularly appealing for those who might not know many people in the area.

Additionally, HMOs typically come fully furnished, eliminating the stress and expense of sourcing furniture for a new place. With utilities often included in the rent, tenants are spared the administrative hassle of setting up and managing separate bills. In essence, HMOs provide a seamless transition for individuals seeking both convenience and a sense of community, making them a preferable, as well as a more affordable, alternative to renting an entire property.

Regulations and Licensing: Due to the shared nature of facilities and to ensure the safety and well-being of multiple tenants, HMOs often fall under specific regulations. Depending on the location and size of the HMO, landlords may be required to obtain a HMO license and adhere to certain safety standards.

Understanding the basic structure and nuances of an HMO is crucial for landlords considering this venture. It’s not merely about maximizing space but ensuring a harmonious, functional, and compliant living environment for all occupants.

2. Assess the Suitability

Choosing the right property for an HMO conversion is pivotal. Not every dwelling is conducive to this transformation, and understanding the dynamics of what makes a property suitable is crucial for the best return on investment (ROI).

Property Type and Layout: The structure and shape of a house play a crucial role in determining its HMO potential. Some properties naturally lend themselves to multiple occupation conversions due to their inherent layout. The objective is to optimise every inch of available space.

While it’s tempting to maximise the number of rooms to boost income, it’s essential to balance this with adherence to minimum room size regulations, especially for bedrooms, kitchens, and shared amenities. Striking this balance is an art — creating spaces that are both functional and compliant ensures that tenants have a comfortable living experience and that landlords avoid potential regulatory pitfalls.

Location and Proximity: The adage “location, location, location” rings true for HMOs. In cosmopolitan cities like London, proximity to the tube can significantly influence tenant demand. However, not just any location will do. While being close to universities, city centres, and major transport hubs generally boosts demand, it’s the nuances of local areas that can set a successful HMO apart.

Every city has its mosaic of neighbourhoods, and within these, certain pockets or streets can be more desirable than others. A property on one street might be in high demand, while another just around the corner could face longer void periods and potentially lower rental income. For an investor, thorough research and a granular understanding of the desired area are indispensable. Recognising these subtle differences and investing wisely can mean the difference between a thriving HMO and a stagnant one. By being strategic in property selection and understanding the fine print of location desirability, landlords can ensure their HMO venture is both profitable and sustainable.

3. Research the Legalities

When considering a foray into the HMO market, a comprehensive understanding of the legal landscape is essential. The regulations surrounding HMOs are multifaceted and can be stringent, ensuring the safety and well-being of tenants. Here’s an expanded overview:

Licensing: While many think of HMO licensing as a one-size-fits-all requirement, in reality, it varies significantly across councils. Each local authority can have its distinct set of regulations tailored to its demographic and housing needs. Therefore, it’s paramount that investors familiarise themselves with both local and national licensing prerequisites.

Some key legislations to be aware of include:

Housing Act 2004: This Act introduced the concept of HMO licensing, aiming to ensure that the most high-risk HMOs met certain safety and welfare standards.

The Management of Houses in Multiple Occupation Regulations (2006): This regulation sets out the duties of an HMO manager, ensuring the property is well-maintained, safe, and that adequate facilities are available for the tenants.

The Licensing of Houses in Multiple Occupation (Mandatory Conditions of Licences) (England) Regulations 2018: This emphasizes the minimum room sizes in HMOs and conditions regarding refuse storage and disposal.

Minimum Amenities Standards for Houses in Multiple Occupation 2020: A recent addition, this legislation underscores the facilities that must be available in an HMO, ensuring that all tenants have access to essential amenities.

Health and Safety: Beyond licensing, the health and safety of tenants in HMOs is a paramount concern and is monitored through various regulations:

Housing Health and Safety Rating System (HHSRS): This risk-based evaluation tool helps local authorities identify potential hazards in properties and ensure that they are rectified. It assesses 29 types of hazards, from damp and mould growth to electrical hazards, ensuring that HMOs provide a safe environment for their residents.

Fire Safety: HMOs, due to their shared nature, often have more stringent fire safety requirements. Landlords must ensure the installation of HMO fire doors where necessary, regularly tested alarms, and often provide fire safety instructions for tenants. An annual review of gas safety, provided by certified professionals, is also mandated.

Amenities and Facilities: The very nature of HMOs, with shared facilities, means that the provision of adequate amenities is vital. Regulations ensure that there are enough bathrooms, kitchens, and communal spaces relative to the number of tenants. Meeting these standards not only ensures compliance but enhances tenant satisfaction and retention.

Navigating the world of HMO legalities can be complex, but it’s a necessary journey for any investor. Understanding and complying with these regulations is not just about avoiding penalties; it’s about providing a high-quality living environment that appeals to tenants and stands the test of time.

4. Financial Considerations

Transitioning into the world of HMOs isn’t just about space and legality. It’s also about ensuring that the numbers make sense. Delving into the financial aspects is crucial to safeguarding your investment and ensuring it’s both profitable and sustainable. Here’s a deeper look into the financial considerations:

Pricing Up the HMO Conversion: One of the most significant financial outlays when converting to an HMO is the initial conversion cost. It’s essential to have an accurate and comprehensive estimate of this to ensure that the investment remains profitable.

  • Fire Safety Features: These are paramount in HMO conversions and are often more stringent than in single-occupancy homes. Installing fire doors can be more costly than standard doors due to their specialised nature. You’ll also need to consider the integration of interconnected smoke alarms and heat detectors. These systems, especially when wired into the building’s mains, can be more expensive but are crucial for tenant safety and regulatory compliance.
  • General Refurbishment Work: Beyond the specialised HMO requirements, converting a property might mean general refurbishment. This could encompass everything from redecorating rooms, updating bathrooms and kitchens, to more significant structural changes to optimise space. When pricing up refurbishment:
  • Obtain Multiple Quotes: Don’t just go with the first contractor you meet. Get detailed quotes from at least three contractors. This gives you a clearer understanding of the market rate and the scope of work each contractor is proposing.
  • Factor in Contingencies: In the world of property refurbishment, unexpected costs are almost a given. It could be an unforeseen structural issue, costs related to obtaining permits, or delays due to various reasons. A general rule of thumb is to set aside an additional 10-20% of the estimated refurbishment cost for such contingencies.
  • Quality vs. Cost: While it’s essential to be cost-effective, this shouldn’t come at the expense of quality. Given that the property will house multiple tenants, wear and tear will be higher than in a standard rental property. Investing in durable materials and quality workmanship can save significant maintenance costs in the long run.

Mortgage: Your existing property mortgage may not cover or permit an HMO conversion. Many mainstream lenders have stipulations against such conversions due to the perceived risks and complexities of managing an HMO. Therefore:

Specialist HMO Mortgages: These are tailored products offered by niche lenders that understand the HMO landscape. They often have terms and conditions that are more aligned with the needs and challenges of an HMO landlord. However, do bear in mind that interest rates and fees might be slightly higher than standard mortgages, reflecting the heightened risk associated with multiple tenants.

Insurance: When it comes to HMOs, regular landlord insurance might fall short. Given the nature of multiple unrelated tenants, the potential for claims can be higher.

Specialist HMO Insurance: This caters explicitly to the unique challenges posed by Houses in Multiple Occupation. Coverage often includes liability protection (in case a tenant gets injured), coverage for unoccupied periods (given the tenant turnover in HMOs), and even legal cover should disputes arise. Ensuring you have the right insurance is not just about compliance but about protecting your investment.

Return on Investment (ROI): Venturing into the HMO arena is an investment strategy, and like all strategies, the ROI is pivotal.

Assessing Rental Yield: With HMOs, you can potentially receive multiple rents from a single property. However, this higher income is offset by the initial conversion costs, more frequent maintenance, and potential licensing fees. It’s essential to project your potential rental income, considering local demand and comparable rents, and then subtract your anticipated expenses. This will give you a clearer picture of your ROI.

Considering Hidden Costs: Beyond the evident costs, there can be unexpected expenses when converting a property into a HMO and running an HMO. These might include higher wear and tear, the need for periodic property updates to remain competitive, and potential vacancies.

Tax Implications: With the introduction of Section 24 and other tax changes, it’s essential to understand how your tax liability might change. Consider consulting a property tax specialist to optimise your tax position.

Navigating the financial realm of HMOs requires a balance of optimism and caution. By considering all potential costs, revenues, and liabilities, you can ensure that your HMO venture is not just profitable on paper but in reality.


Converting a standard property into a House in Multiple Occupation (HMO) is an enticing prospect, especially against the backdrop of growing urban populations seeking affordable housing. The allure of potentially heightened returns beckons landlords and investors towards this promising avenue. Yet, beneath this allure lie intricacies and challenges that demand a comprehensive understanding and meticulous attention to detail.

The very essence of an HMO, with its shared facilities and multiple tenancies, introduces complexities, both in terms of property layout and regulatory compliance. While it offers the promise of multiplied rents, it’s also a realm thick with regulations. Every potential HMO landlord must navigate these regulations, from the basics of shared amenities to stringent legal and safety standards, ensuring a safe and compliant living environment for all tenants.

Financial considerations further compound the challenge. Beyond the prospect of increased rental income are the realities of conversion costs, ongoing maintenance, and potential licensing fees. Every investor must meticulously plan, ensuring the numbers not just add up but result in a sustainable profit.

In essence, converting to an HMO is not merely about multiplying rental income; it’s a comprehensive strategy that requires a balance between tenant satisfaction, compliance, and financial prudence. For the savvy and prepared landlord, this balance ensures their investment not only thrives in the present but stands as a valuable asset for the future.

For those considering turning their property into an HMO and require expert assistance, our team is at your service. For all your HMO Conversion needs, feel free to contact us today.

Carl Evans

Written By Carl Evans

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